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Unit 3 Life in the future GrammarPast participle (3) used as Adverbial & Attribute过去分词过去分词是非谓语动词的一种形式,表示完成和被动的动作。它在句子中可以充当状语、定语等成分。过去分词与现在分词作状语过去分词表完成、被动,与主句主语之间是被动关系;现在分词表进行,主动,与主句主语之间是主动关系。如果一个被动的动作发生在谓语动词之前,则可使用现在分词的完成被动式或过去分词。attention过去分词表完成、被动,作状语时,其逻辑主语是主句的主语,且与主语之间存在着被动关系。过去分词作状语可表时间,原因,让步,结果,方式,条件等。reviewattribute(定语)the developed countriesthe developing countriesthe fallen leavesthe falling leavespredicative(表语)The emotionless sword is broken.We are intrested in the intresting story.object complement(宾补)The ShiZun wants Hua Qiangu killed all the time.Please have your hair cut.观察下列的句子:Worried about the journey, I as unsettled for the first few days.PP as adverbial(状语)过去分词表完成、被动, 作状语时,其逻辑主语是主句的主语, 且与主语之间存在着被动关系。过去分词作状语可表时间, 原因, 让步, 结果, 方式, 条件等。状语:对谓语动词进行修饰、限定的叫做状语,说明动作发生的背景和情况。He works in the factory.He runs quikly.观察下列的句子:Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.Because I was worried about thejourny, I was unsettled for the first few days.PP作原因状语,相当于一个原因状语从句。分析:作用:链接两个句子I was worried about thejourny.I was unsettled for the first few days.Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.分析:Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.逻辑主语和主句主语()过去分词和主语存在( )表示动作( )一致动宾关系完成分析:Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.逻辑主语和主句主语()过去分词和主语存在( )表示动作( )一致动宾关系完成过去分词作状语:过去分词表完成、被动, 作状语时,其逻辑主语是主句的主语, 且与主语之间存在着被动关系。过去分词作状语可表时间, 原因, 让步, 结果, 方式, 条件等。过去分词作时间状语1.When Sha Qianmo is seen from all the aspects , Sha Qianmo looks fascinated.Seen from all the aspects, Sha Qianmo looks fascinated.过去分词原因状语Because he was inspired by hostility , Dong Fang arranged the whole thing.Inspired by hostility , Dong Fang arranged the whole thing.作条件状语If I was given a chance, I prefer to be hurt by the monsters.Given a chance, I prefer to be hurt by the monsters.过去分词作伴随状语1.Mary was reading a love story, and she was completely lost to the romantic life.Mary was reading a love story, completely lost to the romantic life.过去分词作伴随状语1.Mary was reading a love story, and she was completely lost to the romantic life.Mary was reading a love story, completely lost to the romantic life.过去分词作让步状语1.Although loved by no one, you must live and love yourself.Although you are loved by no one,you must live and love yourself.过去分词作方式状语1. Hua Qiangu was playing the harp, instructed by her master.Hua Qiangu was playing the harp, as she was instructed by her master.过去分词作方式状语过去分词作时间,原因,让步,条件等状语从句,可转化为对应的状语从句。过去分词作状语可在其前加when ,if ,although, as if,等连词,构成“连词+过去分词”的形式。1. 当过去分词的逻辑主语不是主句主语时,过去分词前面可以加上名词和代词作逻辑主语,形成独立主格结构。过去分词语气逻辑主语之间是 动宾关系。AttentionThey will send you the books for3.75, postage included.Everything considered, his plans seem better than yours.Seen from the hill, the city looks very beautiful.Seeing from the hill, you can have a good view of the city.doing&done 作状语的区别1.从上面看,体育场好像一个鸟巢。____ from the top, the stadium looks like a bird nest. A. Seeing B. Seen2.从太空看,宇航员看不到长城。____ from the space, the astronaut can not discover the Great Wall. A. Seeing B. Seen注意:选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。位置:句前(主语前),句后,句中(主语后)I was unsettled for the first few days,Worried about the journey.Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.I,Worried about the journey,was unsettled for the first few days,.1)过去分词在句子中可以作时间状语、原因状语、伴随状语、条件状语和让步状语等。2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词的逻辑主语与句子主语一致。Summary过去分词作状语:过去分词有两大特点:1.表示被动的动作;2.表示已经完成的动作,因此,当过去分词作状语的时候一定要搞清楚分词与主语的逻辑关系--被动,例如:Difference between the Present Participle and the Past Participle_____for a long time,the booklooks old.由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧.______the book,Ifind it useful.在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用.________at her,hejumped with joy._______at by her,hejumped with joy.UsedUsingLookingLookedComplete each sentence using the Past Participle of the right verb.1) _________ by noises in the night, the girl no longer dare to sleep in her room.2) The lady returned home, ________ by two policemen.frighten trap follow shootFrightenedfollowed3)If_______ in a burning building, you should send for help.4)Although____in the leg, he continued firing at the police.trappedshot过去分词作定语过去分词作定语与其所修饰的词之间存在着逻辑上的被动关系,且表示该动作已经完成。单个的过去分词作定语,通常置于被修饰的词的前面,而分词短语作定语,则须置于被修饰词的后面。Attention1. Last Sunday we went on anorganizedtrip to the forest.                上星期我们组织了一次去森林的旅行。2. A letterpostedtoday will reach him the day after tomorrow.               今天发出的信后天就能收到。分词作定语可以转换成定语从句:He worked as a workerbuilding roads.(主动)=He worked as a workerwho/ that built roads.This is a picturepainted by my father.(被动)=This is a picturewhich was painted by my father.I know the young mansleeping on the bench. (在进行)=I know the young manwho is sleeping on the bench.The lettermailed last nightwill reach him tomorrow.(已完成)=The letterwhich was mailed last nightwill reach him tomorrow.过去分词短语有时亦可用作非限制性定语,前后常有逗号。Some of them,born and brought up in country villages,had never seen a train.他们当中有一些人,生长在农村,从未见过火车。过去分词作定语有前置和后置两种情况:单个的过去分词作定语,通常放在被修饰的名词之前,表示被动和完成意义。1.前置定语被动意义:an honored guest一位受尊敬的客人(受伤的工人)are now being taken good care of in the hospital.B.完成意义a retired teacher一位退休的教师They are cleaning(落叶) in the yard.The injured workersthe fallen leaves2.后置定语过去分词短语作定语时,通常放在被修饰的名词之后,它的作用相当于一个定语从句。This will be the best novel of its kindever written.=Who were the so-called guests invited(=) to your part last night?that has ever been writtenwho had been invited如果被修饰的词是由every/some/any/no + thing/body/one所构成的复合代词或指示代词those等时,即使一个单一的分词作形容词用,也要放在被修饰词的后面。例如:Is there anythingunsolved?There is notingchangedhere since I left this town.注意:1. The Olympic Games, ___ in 776 B. C., didn’t include women until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be playing考点点拨简析:首先,根据语法分析可知,待选部分是一个作定语、修饰The Olympic Games的后置分词短语;再根据The Olympic Games对于动词play来说只能是被动承受,且已完成(in 776 B. C.)。因此,该题应选C。2. What’s the language ___ in Germany? A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak简析:该题应选B。测试过去分词作后置定语表达被动,等于定语从句which is spoken。3. Most of the artists ____ to the party were from South Africa. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. had been invited简析:该题应选A。测试过去分词作后置定语表达被动,等于定语从句who were invited。4. The computer centre, ___ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened简析:该题应选D。测试过去分词短语作定语放在所修饰的名词后,可以用非限制性定语从句“which was opened last year”代替。5. The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written简析:该题应选D。测试过去分词作后置定语表达被动,等于定语从句which were written。另外,分词作状语时,如果其逻辑主语与整个句子的主语不一致时,需要独立主格结构或with复合结构来替代。(此时,也可把该分词看成介词的宾语补足语。) 更多

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